• Current through October 23, 2012

(a) Except as otherwise provided in this article, the lease agreement may include rights and remedies for default in addition to or in substitution for those provided in this article and may limit or alter the measure of damages recoverable under this article.

(b) Resort to a remedy provided under this article or in the lease agreement is optional unless the remedy is expressly agreed to be exclusive. If circumstances cause an exclusive or limited remedy to fail of its essential purpose, or provision for an exclusive remedy is unconscionable, remedy may be had as provided in this article.

(c) Consequential damages may be liquidated under § 28:2A-504, or may otherwise be limited, altered, or excluded unless the limitation, alteration, or exclusion is unconscionable. Limitation, alteration, or exclusion of consequential damages for injury to the person in the case of consumer goods is prima facie unconscionable, but limitation, alteration, or exclusion of damages where the loss is commercial is not prima facie unconscionable.

(d) Rights and remedies on default by the lessor or the lessee with respect to any obligation or promise collateral or ancillary to the lease contract are not impaired by this article.

(July 22, 1992, D.C. Law 9-128, § 2(b), 39 DCR 3830.)



Uniform Statutory Source

Sections 2-719 and 2-701.


Rewritten to reflect lease terminology and to clarify the relationship between this section and Section 2A-504.


1. A significant purpose of this Part is to provide rights and remedies for those parties to a lease who fail to provide them by agreement or whose rights and remedies fail of their essential purpose or are unenforceable.   However, it is important to note that this implies no restriction on freedom to contract.  Sections 2A-103(4) and 1-102(3).  Thus, subsection (1), a revised version of the provisions of Section 2-719(1), allows the parties to the lease agreement freedom to provide for rights and remedies in addition to or in substitution for those provided in this Article and to alter or limit the measure of damages recoverable under this Article.   Except to the extent otherwise provided in this Article (e.g., Sections 2A-105, 106 and 108(1) and (2)), this Part shall be construed neither to restrict the parties' ability to provide for rights and remedies or to limit or alter the measure of damages by agreement, nor to imply disapproval of rights and remedy schemes other than those set forth in this Part.

2. Subsection (2) makes explicit with respect to this Article what is implicit in Section 2-719 with respect to the Article on Sales (Article 2): if an exclusive remedy is held to be unconscionable, remedies under this Article are available. Section 2-719 official comment 1.

3. Subsection (3), a revision of Section 2-719(3), makes clear that consequential damages may also be liquidated. Section 2A-504(1).

4. Subsection (4) is a revision of the provisions of Section 2-701. This subsection leaves the treatment of default with respect to obligations or promises collateral or ancillary to the lease contract to other law. Sections 2A-103(4) and 1-103. An example of such an obligation would be that of the lessor to the secured creditor which has provided the funds to leverage the lessor's lease transaction; an example of such a promise would be that of the lessee, as seller, to the lessor, as buyer, in a sale-leaseback transaction.

Cross References

Sections 1-102(3), 1-103, Article 2, especially Sections 2-701, 2- 719, 2-719(1), 2-719(3), 2-719 official comment 1, and Sections 2A-103(4), 2A-105, 2A-106, 2A-108(1), 2A-108(2), and 2A-504.

Definitional Cross References

"Agreed". Section 1-201(3).

"Consumer goods". Section 9-109(1).

"Lease agreement". Section 2A-103(1)(k).

"Lease contract". Section 2A-103(1)(l).

"Lessee". Section 2A-103(1)(n).

"Lessor". Section 2A-103(1)(p).

"Person". Section 1-201(30).

"Remedy". Section 1-201(34).

"Rights". Section 1-201(36).

Prior Codifications

1981 Ed., § 28:2A-503.

Legislative History of Laws

For legislative history of D.C. Law 9-128, see Historical and Statutory Notes following § 28:2A-101.